Although barriers to women’s participation in astronomy (and science generally) were quite high in the pre-modern world, there were certainly a few brilliant women who contributed to the development of the field. The links below contain information about some of these women.
Maria Cuntiz (by Leila McMeill)
Daughters of Urania (by Thony Christie)
Laura Bassi (by Thony Christie)
Émilie du Chatelet (by Thony Christie)
Margherita Sarrocchi (by Meredith Ray)